Seasonal changes in metabolic rate have been shown in horses and we hypothesized that this leads to the birth of smaller foals early in the year. Mares and their foals were assigned to three groups by day of foaling within the year (e.g. 1 January = day 1): Group 1 (n = 10) day 40-65, group 2 (n = 8) day 67-92, group 3 (n = 9) day 94-121. Groups did not differ with regard to parity. In foals, height at withers and body weight were determined on days 1-5 and weekly until 12 weeks of age. Chest circumference, distances fetlock to carpus, carpus to elbow, poll to nose and crown-rump length were determined on day 5 and weekly until 12 weeks of age. Placental weight (p < 0.05) and surface (p < 0.01) were lower in mares of group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Foal weight and length measurements increased over time (p < 0.001). Height at withers was consistently lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05) while foal weight did not differ among groups. Fetlock to carpus, carpus to elbow (both p < 0.01) and poll to nose length (p < 0.05) were lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Neither gestation length nor sex ratio of foals differed among groups. In conclusion, foetal size is reduced when the final growth phase coincides with the winter months. This also impacts neonatal growth during the first three months of life.