The anatomy and possible diseases of the chelonian urogenital tract are summarized in a bibliography. In addition various examination methods are discussed with special emphasis on diagnostic imaging methods (radiography, ultrasonography, and computertomography). A stand - off pad for sonographic examinations of chelonians is introduced. It enables examinations of animals starting at a carapace length of about 12 cm. Imaging artifacts in ultrasonography are listed. Radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the urogenital organs are demonstrated in a healthy test group of Testudo hermanni, T. graeca, T. marginata, T. horsfieldii, Pseudemys scripta elegans, and Geochelone gigantea. Early diagnosis of eggs was successful with ultrasonography as well as computertomography. Various stages of follicle and egg development were imaged sonographically in this group. A second group of chelonians was presented with various diseases of the urogenital tract. Gout, kidney enlargement caused by hexamitiasis and peritoneal fluid accumulation were diagnosed sonographically. The use of ultrasonography for early detection of gout and, for sexing in tortoises is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic imaging methods and their use in chelonians are compared.