The Mongolian Gobi is the most important stronghold of the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), housing > 75% of the remaining global population. However, even in this remote refuge, poaching and changes in land use are challenging the species' conservation. Whereas progress has been made in monitoring population size, little data are available on population structure and dynamics. To fill this gap, we determined the age and sex of 440 skulls collected in two regions of the Mongolian Gobi. Foals and yearlings were underrepresented in our skull sample with 3 and 7.3% only, but the rest of the age pyramid was well balanced. The mean age was 7.7 years, the maximum age 29 years, and the sex ratio was not different from even. Mortality risk analysis revealed low annual mortality rates of about 15% in the most productive age classes of 5-10 years, followed by a slow increase with age until about 17 years and a likely faster increase thereafter. As the large majority of carcasses suggested a poachingrelated mortality which appears random, our dataset provides the first insight into the structure of the largest remaining Asiatic wild ass population and can be used as a benchmark for future monitoring and population viability modeling.