Hippocampal necrosis and hippocampal sclerosis in cats is a neuropathological entity which is a major concern in feline epilepsy. The aim of our study was to identify associated pathologic brain lesions possibly serving as aetiological triggers in this condition. Therefore, the formalin-fixed and paraffin waxembedded brain tissue of 35 cats diagnosed with hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis was examined retrospectively. In 26 cats inflammatory infiltrates could be found in the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions. Fifteen out of these animals demonstrated mild to moderate infiltrations by lymphocytes and complement deposition in the hippocampus similar to human limbic encephalitis, seven showed unspecific, predominantly non-suppurative inflammation, and two demonstrated suppurative inflammation of the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions. Additionally, one cat was diagnosed with central nervous manifestation of feline infectious peritonitis virus and another one with cerebral Toxoplasma gondii infection. Intracranial neoplasia was present in five cases altogether. Three of them comprised meningioma which was present additionally to lesions resembling limbic encephalitis in two cases, and a dentate gyrus alteration in one case. The other two tumour-associated cases comprised oligodendroglioma. Structural alterations of the dentate gyrus together with hippocampal sclerosis were encountered in three cases in total. Besides the case associated with a meningioma, one case demonstrated lesions resembling limbic encephalitis. A vascular infarct in the temporal lobe was encountered in one cat. In four cases no lesions other than hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis were found. The involvement of feline immunodeficiency virus infections, which may be able to produce hippocampal lesions, was not encountered in the cats examined.