Scientific information on spontaneous type I diabetes mellitus (DM) and treatment modalities in guinea pigs is scarce. As most diabetic guinea pigs are overweight and respond to dietary changes, a disorder resembling type II-DM in humans seems to be most prevalent in this species. In the present report, a nine-month-old female intact guinea pig (GP1) was presented because of a cataract and polyphagia. The physical examinations in GP1 and its littermate, GP2, were unremarkable. Laboratory tests revealed hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, elevated fructosamine concentrations, and glucosuria in GP1 and GP2. Not responding to dietary changes, an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was suspected in both animals. Treatment with 0.5 IU of glargine insulin (Lantus®) per guinea pig subcutaneously (s.c.) once daily was initiated in both animals. Monitoring included repeated clinical evaluations and the measurement of plasma glucose and fructosamine concentrations. Capillary glucose concentration was measured using a glucometer, and glucosuria was monitored by dipstick. Blood glucose concentrations decreased quickly in both GPs, and glucosuria resolved. Including several dose adjustments, DM remained controlled for over 1.5 years. Bilateral cataracts and lens-induced uveitis in GP1 were medically managed with only slight progression. This is the first report of guinea pigs with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus that were successfully treated with long-acting basal insulin glargine.