Here we characterize the antitumor activity of a recombinant bispecific single-chain antibody isolated from the serum of cloned transgenic cows. The antibody, termed r28M, is directed to a melanoma-associated proteoglycan, also expressed on glioblastoma cells, and to human CD28. Bound to tumor cells, r28M induced exceedingly efficient supraagonistic T-cell activation via the CD28 molecule without an additional stimulus via the TCR/CD3 complex. In vitro, T cells and NK cells contributed to tumor cell killing after r28M-mediated activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, NK activity depended on T-cell-derived cytokines. In vivo, r28M markedly inhibited the growth of human glioblastoma cells in nude mice. The serum half-life of the protein after i.v. injection was approximately 6 hr. Thus, r28M is unique not only in inducing supraagonistic CD28-mediated T-cell activation against tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, it also meets 2 additional requirements that are critical for clinical application: a relatively long serum half-life and the possibility of obtaining large amounts of active material from cloned transgenic livestock.