The aerial parts and roots of Betonica officinalis were collected from three localities characterized by different ecological conditions to study the natural variability of the chemical composition of the essential oils in this plant. The leaves and inflorescences were collected during the flowering time, whereas the roots were collected at the end of the vegetative period. The plant material was dried at room temperature. The essential oils were obtained by micro-steam hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 69 constituents were identified in all localities and plant parts. The main compositions of the leaves in all localities were alpha-pinene, 1-octen-3-ol, beta-bourbonene, (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene D. The essential oil of the inflorescences was characterized by these main constituents: alpha-pinene, (E)-caryophyllene and trans-beta-farnesene. In all localities, the percentages of alpha-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene were higher in the inflorescences than in the leaves, whereas nonane was the main constituent in the roots.