The composition of the essential oil from the different above ground plant parts of Peucedanum cervaria and P. alsaticum (Apiaceae) collected in the urban area of Vienna has been studied. P. cervaria fruits and inflorescences had 1.5 and 1.8% essential oil, respectively. All the oils of P. cervaria were dominated by monoterpenes, with the main components being beta-pinene (7-58%), alpha-pinene (7-22%), sabinene (up to 22%), and beta-phellandrene with limonene (6-21%). P. alsaticum fruits afforded 0.3-0.4% essential oil. These oils were made up mainly by alpha-pinene (11-40%), sabinene (16-34%) and beta-phellandrene (12-31%). Stems and leaves produced only very small amounts of essential oil (< 0.05%). Besides monoterpenes, these oils contained also E-nerolidol (5-22%), spathulenol (up to 18%), dodecanal (up to 7.5%) and caryophyllene oxide (up to 7%).