Long-term developments (1891-2009) of the hunting bag of 25 wildlife species were investigated and brought in relation with changes of habitat quality as well as changes of the hunting legislation and the attitudes of hunters. The study area of about 1.000 ha is located in the southern Vienna-Woods, close to the Austrian capital Vienna. Main causes for long-term changes of the hunting bag (species, numbers) were depending on the wildlife species positive or negative habitat changes (Table 3, Fig. 6) as well as changes of hunters' attitudes and the prevention of diseases. Developments in the larger region (exceeding the study area) played a leading role in the explanation of the relations. Both World War I and II and the immediate postwar period caused a drastic decline in the hunting bags (legislative hunting restrictions, poaching, etc.), but also initiated the later on efforts to manage wildlife for population increase, which were very effective for wild ungulates. A short-term cut in hunting bags was caused by the nuclear accident in Tschernobyl (1986). Changes in hunting seasons were closely related to long-term changes in hunting bag numbers only for few species (e.g. wild boar, Table 4). The number of species culled each year was about double as high before World War I than in the period afterwards (Fig. 3). Until the mid-20th century hunting bags were dominated by hares, crows and birds of prey, afterwards mainly roe deer were culled. Wild boar appeared later on and increased strongly in the last two decades (Fig. 4). The number of animals culled yearly is now about the same level as 120 years ago (Fig. 1), yet was in between considerably lower (minimum about 20% of recent values, influence of both World Wars). The hunting bag of wild ungulates increased considerably from about 28 head per year in the period between 1891 and 1910 to 69 head per year between 1990 and 2009. The biomass of the ungulate game bag (kg/year) is now twice as high as at the end of the 19th century (Tables 1 and 2, Fig. 2).