Bio-nanotechnology employing bio-sourced nanomaterial is an emerging avenue serving the field of fish medicine. Marine-sourced chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) is a well-known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory reagent with low or no harm side effects on fish or their human consumers. In this study, in vitro skin mucus and serum antibacterial activity assays along with intestinal histology, histochemical, and gene expression analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of dietary CSNPs (5 g kg-1 dry feed) on rainbow trout resistance against 'enteric redmouth' disease. Two treatment conditions were included; short-term prophylactic-regimen for 21 days before the bacterial challenge, and long-term therapeutic-regimen for 21 days before the challenge and extended for 28 days after the challenge. Our results revealed higher antibacterial defense ability and positive intestinal histochemical and molecular traits of rainbow trout after dietary CSNPs. The prophylactic-regimen improved trout health while the therapeutic regimen improved their disease resistance and lowered their morbidity. Therefore, it is anticipated that CSNPs is an effective antibacterial and immunomodulatory fish feed supplement against the infectious threats. However, the CSNPs seem to be more effective in the therapeutic application rather than being used for short-term prophylactic applications.