The feeding of concentrate-rich diets may lead to microbial imbalances and dysfermentation in the rumen. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing phytogenic compounds (PHY) or autolyzed yeast (AY) on rumen fermentation and microbial abundance in cows intermittently fed concentrate-rich diets. The experiment was carried out as an incomplete 3 × 4 Latin square design, with 8 nonlactating rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows. The cows were randomly assigned to a concentrate diet that was either not supplemented (CON), or supplemented with PHY or AY. Each of the 4 consecutive experimental periods was composed of a 1-wk roughage-only diet (RD), 6-d gradual concentrate increase, followed by 1 wk of 65% concentrate (dry matter basis; Conc I), and 1 wk of RD and a final 2-wk 65% concentrate (dry matter basis; Conc II) phase. Digesta samples were collected from the rumen mat for bacterial 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq (Illumina, Balgach, Switzerland) sequencing, and samples of particle-associated rumen liquid were obtained for measuring short-chain fatty acids, lactate, ammonia, and pH during RD (d 6), Conc I (d 19), and Conc II (d 39). The concentrate feeding caused a decrease of overall bacterial diversity indices, especially during Conc I. The genera Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, and Coprococcus were decreased, whereas Prevotella, Megasphaera, Lachnospira, and Bacteroides were increased in abundance. Supplementation of both feed additives increased the abundance of gram-positive and decreased that of gram-negative bacteria. Supplementation of AY enhanced cellulolytic bacteria such as Ruminococcus spp., whereas PHY decreased starch and sugar fermenters including Bacteroides spp., Shuttleworthia spp., and Syntrophococcus spp. Moreover, PHY supplementation increased butyrate percentage in the rumen in both concentrate phases. In conclusion, intermittent high-concentrate feeding altered the digesta-associated rumen bacterial community and rumen fermentation with more significant alterations found in Conc I than in Conc II. The data also showed that both feed additives had the most significant modulatory effects on the bacterial community, and their subsequent fermentation, during periods of low pH.