This literature survey presents the Hyperflexion, gives definitions and explains the effects on the most important anatomic structures. The horses have to be prepared in a short period to a great champion and dressage is a great show event with spectators who expect exaggerated motions and great performances. Thus, the pressure on the rider and trainer is immense because sponsors are very important for the success. This trainings method increased and also an inexperienced rider uses this technique. Horses in sports in Hyprflexion position have increased in total. The feasible health effects and loss of animal welfare are negative signs of this trainings method. Also stress parameters as heart rate and cortisol are revealed. The FEI only allows LDR and permits brute training methods. Furthermore, the effects on the ridden horse and the gaits are discussed. The neckline and different head positions illustrate the different problems a ridden horse can have. The key issue is the correct riding based on the current riding theory and the influences of Hyperflexion. The difference between a horse which uses its back and a horse that goes by the rider´s leg is pointed out. Also the point of view of the sympathisers is regarded.
Finally, there is no concrete study which points out that the horse´s health and welfare suffer, but in context of brutality however, it is never permitted, but there a lot of experts with detailed, understandable argumentation against Hyperflexion.