The hypolipidaemic drug nafenopin (NAF) has been shown to enhance the hepatocarcinogenic effect of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats. We have investigated whether the NAF-induced peroxisome proliferation in hepatocytes interferes with NDMA"s metabolism and interaction with DNA. Adult male Wistar rats received a single i.p. injection of [14C]NDMA (2 mg/kg) and were killed 4 h later. DNA was isolated from liver and kidney, hydrolysed in 0.1 N HCl and analysed by Sephasorb chromatography. In rats pre-treated with NAF (0.2% in the diet over a period of 3 weeks), the concentration of N7-methylguanine in hepatic DNA (mumol/mol guanine) was 46% below control values. This is probably due to the greater amount of target DNA, as NAF caused a marked hepatomegaly with a 50% increase in total liver DNA content. Concentrations of N7-methylguanine in kidney DNA were twice as high in NAF-pre-treated animals when compared to control rats. This is unlikely to result from a shift in the metabolism of NDMA from liver to other rat tissues since the time course and extent of the conversion of [14C]NDMA to 14CO2 and 14C-labelled urinary metabolites were identical in NAF-treated and control animals. There was no indication that NAF inhibits the activity of the hepatic O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.