Despite the well-known fact that evolutionary patterns of single genes or sequences are not necessarily paralleled by organismic evolution, using mitochondrial sequence divergence for inferring phylogenetic relationships among hare species is not uncommon. Earlier studies reported interspecific introgression in the genus Lepus that may slur systematic conclusions drawn exclusively from rntDNA data. We examined pairwise divergence in partial mtHV-1 sequences and nuclear gene pools based on microsatellite and allozyme loci separately in a South and North African population of cape hares, Lepus capensis, and did not find significant correspondence on the individual level within either population. Also, the former population had a significantly higher level of mntHV-1 sequence divergence compared to the latter, but levels of individual nuclear gene pool divergence did not differ significantly between the two populations. Hence, the absence of correspondence between mtHV-1 sequence divergence and nuclear gene pool divergence among individuals within a population might be independent or the population-specific level of differentiation among individuals. Our results complement earlier findings in hares, and strongly recommend to include nuclear gene pool evidence for systematic inferences within this genus, even under the absence of mitochondrial introgression. (C) 2007 Deutsche Gesellschaft fur S Saugetierkunde. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.