Hazard- and risk based concepts for the assessment of microbiological water quality - part 2 Literature review on the presence and ecology of potentially water-borne zoonotic pathogens in livestock and wildlife populations with special emphasis on alpine and pre-alpine regions The application of molecular biology in pathogen specification has provided new knowledge of pathogen taxonomy and epidemiology. The more specific identification and classification of pathogens on species, genotypes and subtypes level allow enhanced insight into differences in disease pattern, zoonotic and hazard potential. The knowledge about new reservoirs, routes of transmission and species spectra leads to new conclusions regarding pathology, hence also on health relevance of humans and animals. However there is still a massive deficiency in epidemiologic studies worldwide, in which pathogens and their underlying ecology is investigated in depth. The lacking information comprises the interaction between potential animal reservoirs, wildlife and livestock, the environment and humans. Since 2 thirds of all human pathogens have zoonotic potential, the former disciplinary borders admix. The threatening and emerging diseases, which occurred during the last years, e.g. avian influenza, henipah and SARS, are not only zoonoses, but have a wildlife-reservoir, too. In the first part of this review we discussed the necessity to expand the present water quality-management for the element risk assessment to an integrative approach (STALDER et al., 2011). In the second part we sum up the new findings of the epidemiology of the selected indicator pathogens of the alpine and pre-alpine region. Secondly, we show new aspects, with respect to hazard and risk assessment, which partly extending existing knowledge, but also partly revise it. In the literature study and analysis we specifically look into the problem of potential reservoirs of known waterborne pathogens in livestock and wildlife. Furthermore we evaluate their threat on public health, and discuss the interactions of these pathogens among themselves, as well as on the environment, and finally also their impact on humans.