Recent studies on bovine uterine disorders have demonstrated that endometrial infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the postpartum period or at the time of breeding negatively affects reproductive performance. The objective of the present study was therefore to analyze the effect of endometrial PMN infiltration on superovulation outcome. Cows were synchronized and superovulated receiving a total of three artificial inseminations within 24 h. Endometrial cytologic samples were collected by cytobrush technique at first artificial inseminations (AI) (d -1) and before embryo flush (d 7). Embryos were recovered by uterus flushing at Day 7 and evaluated for total cell number and apoptotic cell index. A total of 425 embryos were flushed out of 48 superovulated cows. The PMN dynamics from first AI to flushing had a significant effect on flushing outcome. Significant differences in terms of number of palpable corpora lutea (14.1 vs 7.2) and transferable embryos (8.8 vs 1.9) were found between cows with PMN proportions increasing from zero (0%) at AI to positive proportions (> 0%) at flushing (group PMNZP) and cows with higher endometrial PMN proportions decreasing to lower but still positive proportions from AI to flushing (group PMNHL). Moreover, cows classified to PMN class zero at first AI flushed a significant higher number of total embryos (10.3 vs 6.9) and transferable embryos (6.8 vs 3.7) compared to cows of PMN class positive at first AI (P > 0.05) in our study. Considering a significant interaction effect between PMN class at first AI and flush (P < 0.05), PMN class at first AI (d -1) correlated significantly with number of total flushed and transferable embryos only in combination with a positive PMN class at flush (d 7). Likewise, PMN class at flush (d 7) beard a significant effect on total number of flushed embryos only when classified to PMN class zero at first AI. Collectively, the present work is the first study that demonstrated a significant relationship between endometrial PMN infiltration at first AI as well as PMN dynamic from first AI to time of flush and superovulation outcome.