Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widely cultivated freshwater fish for human consumption, while koi carp, is a farmed colored sub species of common carp used for ornamental purposes. Since 1998, both common carp and koi carp are severely affected by a viral disease called as Koi herpes virus disease (KHVD). This disease is caused by Koi herpes virus (KHV), also known as cyprinid herpes virus-3. The virus causes interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis in carps, so it is also termed as carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus. KHV is a double stranded icosahedral DNA virus belonging to family Alloherpesviridae, with a genome size of 295 kbp, larger than any member of Herpesviridae. The viral genome encodes 156 potential protein coding open reading frames. Each virion consists of forty structural proteins, which are classified as capsid (3), envelope (13), tegument (2) and unclassified (22) structural proteins. Diagnosis of KHVD is mainly based on detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction amplification using specific primers or loop mediated isothermal amplification. Temperature dependent latent infection is unique to KHV; and carrier fish are often not detected, thereby possibly resulting in spread of this pathogen to newer areas. The disease is now known to occur in, or has been recorded from at least 26 different countries of the world. Fortunately, KHVD has not been reported from India or from Indian major carps. To monitor the disease status of the country, a total of 254 fish samples collected from different parts of India were screened by PCR for the presence of KHV. None of the tested samples were found to be positive for KHV. These results demonstrate that tested samples from different parts of India were apparently free from KHV. Preliminary risk assessment of KHV suggest that in the event of unrestricted importation of koi carps into our country, there is a higher probability of risk to aquaculture as compared to natural waters. So there is strong need to develop diagnostic capabilities and launch surveillance programmes for KHV in India.