The currently applied immunotherapy of type I allergy with aluminum hydroxide (alum) as adjuvant elicits - among other side effects - an initial IgE-boost. In contrast, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) drive the immune response toward Th1. The biodegradable material protamine can spontaneously form nanoparticles together with such ODNs. Our aim was to investigate the immune response induced by protamine-based nanoparticles (proticles) with CpG-ODN as an allergen delivery system. Proticles complexed with Ara h 2 extracted from raw peanuts as model allergen were injected subcutaneously into naïve BALB/c mice. Ara h 2-specific antibodies were analyzed by ELISA and rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Cytokine levels were investigated in supernatants of stimulated splenocytes. The in vivo distribution after subcutaneous injection was examined via fluorescence imaging. BMDCs were stimulated with proticles, and expression of stimulation and maturation markers as well as cytokines in supernatants was investigated. A favorable increase in Ara h 2-specific IgG2a antibodies was found after immunization with proticles-Ara h 2, whereas Ara h 2-specific IgE was not detectable. Accordingly, the ratio of IL-5/IFN-gamma was low in this group. Granuloma formation was completely absent at injection sites of proticles. The distribution of Ara h 2 after subcutaneous injection was markedly decelerated when complexed to proticles. Stimulation of BMDCs with proticles-Ara h 2 caused upregulation of CD11c and CD80 as well as an increased IL-6 production. Our data suggest that biodegradable protamine-based nanoparticles with CpG-ODN counteract the Th2-dominated immune response induced by an allergen and therefore are suitable as novel carrier system for immunotherapy of allergy.