Background: Hybridisation in Senecio/Jacobaea is frequent and of significance in speciation and evolution. Moreover, these genera are model systems for studying the evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Hybrids between Jacobaea aquatica and J. vulgaris have been reported from north-western Europe. Aims: Our aim was to determine whether hybrids between Jacobaea aquatica and J. vulgaris also occurred in Austria, and if these hybrids could be responsible for the presumed increase of J. aquatica-like plants in this part of Europe. Furthermore, we tested if such hybrids showed an altered PA spectrum compared with parental species. Methods: We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to analyse genetic diversity and structure, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify PAs. Results: We were able to identify genetically one hybrid population adjacent to a large J. aquatica population. The AFLP phenotypes of hybrids demonstrated a closer relationship to J. aquatica, suggesting frequent backcrossing. All hybrid individuals contained the same set of PAs as the parental species, but in differing amounts, plus four additional PAs, one of which may be novel. Conclusions: Although hybridisation in Jacobaea is common, we were able to confirm only one hybrid population in Austria. Therefore, it seems unlikely that hybridisation plays a role in the presumed increase of J. aquatica in this area.