Extremely divergent traits between males and females are often the result of different requirements and behaviours of the sexes and will evolve relatively rapidly under selection forces. Sexual dimorphism in Rhopalapion longirostre is predominately manifested in the length and structure of the rostrum. To estimate how sexual selection shapes mating success in this weevil we compared paired and unpaired individuals collected from three populations in Austria. The mating process in this species is complex and lengthy. Statistical analyses based on detailed observations of their mating behaviour revealed that matched pairs show functional affinities in body size. Females and males with larger elytra, as well as males with large overall body size, are favoured mating partners, while males that are too small have no mating success. This arrangement ensures copulation and consequently successful egg deposition. For efficient egg channel boring into the flower buds of the host plant, Alcea rosea, the extremely long female rostrum is a crucial tool. Natural selection promotes longer rostra in females whereas sexual selection favours the shorter rostra in males. The major evolutionary forces, natural and sexual selection, enhance the sexual dimorphism in this species.(c) 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 115, 38-47.