Aeromonas salmonicida is the oldest known infectious agent to be linked to fish disease and constitutes a major bacterial pathogen of fish, in particular of salmonids. This bacterium can be found almost worldwide in both marine and freshwater environments and has been divided into several sub-species. In this review, we present the most recent developments concerning our understanding of this pathogen, including how the characterization of new isolates from non-salmonid hosts suggests a more nuanced picture of the importance of the so‑called 'atypical isolates'. We also describe the clinical presentation regarding the infection across several fish species and discuss what is known about the virulence of A. salmonicida and, in particular, the role that the type 3 secretion system might play in suppressing the immune response of its hosts. Finally, isolates have displayed varied levels of antibiotic resistance. Hence, we review a number of solutions that have been developed both to prevent outbreaks and to treat them once they occur, including the application of pre- and probiotic supplements.