An investigation into the aetiology and pathogenesis of adenoviral gizzard erosion has been conducted following three natural outbreaks affecting one flock of 6-week-old replacement pullets and two consecutive placements of free range layers at the age of 21 and 23 weeks. Affected flocks showed increased mortality (0.12-0.30% per week), and gizzard lesions were consistent with fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) involvement. To substantiate the initial findings, a selection of archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gizzard samples from another 12 pullet and layer flocks, for which macroscopic and histopathological diagnosis of the disease were recorded in Great Britain during the period 2009-2016, were also investigated. In situ hybridization (ISH), virology and/or PCR confirmed the presence of FAdV species-A, serotype-1 (FAdV-A, FAdV-1) DNA in gizzard samples of all 15 cases investigated. Co-infections with additional FAdV serotypes including FAdV-8a were detected by serology and/or virology in two of the pullet flocks. However, species-specific in situ hybridization revealed that pathological changes of affected gizzards were only associated with the detection of FAdV-A. A subsequent in vivo study infecting 21-day-old SPF pullets with FAdV-1 or FAdV-8a strains isolated from the 6-week-old replacement pullets revealed characteristic pathomorphological changes only in the gizzards from birds infected with FAdV-1. While infection with FAdV-8a was confirmed by virology and serology, infected SPF birds did not develop pathomorphological changes. Therefore, the aetiological involvement of the isolated FAdV-8a in the development of adenoviral gizzard erosion in commercial pullets has been ruled out.