The bovine oviduct provides the site for fertilization and early embryonic development. Modifications to this physiological environment, for instance the presence of pathogenic bacterial species, could diminish reproductive success at early stages of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inflammatory responses of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) to a pathogenic bacterial species (Trueperella pyogenes) and a potentially pathogenic bacterium (Bacillus pumilus). BOEC from four healthy animals were isolated, cultured in passage 0 (P0) and passaged until P3. Trypan blue staining determined BOEC viability during 24 h co-culture with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of T. pyogenes (MOI 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 1) or B. pumilus (MOI 1 and 10). BOEC remained viable when co-cultured with T. pyogenes at MOI 0.01 and with B. pumilus at MOI 1 and 10. Extracted total RNA from control and bacteria co-cultured samples was subjected to reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTq-PCR) to determine mRNA expression of various studied genes. The rate of release of interleukin 8 (IL8) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from BOEC was measured by ELISA after 24 h co-culture with bacteria. RT-qPCR of various selected pro-inflammatory factors revealed similar mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors in BOEC co-cultured with T. pyogenes and in the controls. Higher mRNA expression of IL 1A, -1B, tumor necrosis factor alpha and CXC ligand (CXCL) 1/2, -3, -5 and IL8 and PG synthesis enzymes in BOEC co-cultured with B. pumilus was observed. In the presence of B. pumilus a higher amount of IL8 and PGE2 was released from BOEC than from controls. The viability and pro-inflammatory response of P3 BOEC incubated with bacteria was lower than in P0 BOEC. These findings illustrate the pathogenicity of T. pyogenes towards BOEC in detail and the potential role of B. pumilus in generating inflammation in oviductal cells. Culturing conditions influenced the pro-inflammatory responses of BOEC towards bacteria. Therefore, researchers conducting epithelial-bacterial in vitro co-culture should not underestimate the effects of these parameters.