Dietary inclusion of resistant starches can promote host health through modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and lipid metabolism. This study investigated the impact of a transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on gastric, ileal, cecal, proximal-colonic, and mid-colonic bacterial community profiles and fermentation metabolites using a growing pig model. It additionally evaluated the effect of TGS on the expression of host genes related to glucose and SCFA absorption, incretins, and satiety in the gut as well as host genes related to lipid metabolism in hepatic and adipose tissue. Sixteen growing pigs (4 months of age) were fed either a TGS or control (CON) diet for 11 days. Bacterial profiles were determined via Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, whereas SCFA and gene expression were measured using gas chromatography and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR.