Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of management practices, diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy of endoparasite infections in alpaca herds and of the animal owners perception of this topic, and to combine these data with management data to develop recommendations for prevention and prophylaxis of endoparasitoses in New World camelids. Material and methods: A questionnaire collected information concerning animal husbandry, feeding and care as well as on prevalence, prophylaxis and therapy of endoparasitoses. The questionnaire was sent to 349 alpaca farms in Germany and 67 in Austria, and was completed and returned by 81 farms, 65 (18.6%) from Germany and 16 (23.9%) from Austria. Results: Differences in regional parasite distribution were not observed. Coccidia and gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent endoparasites detected by faecal examination. In total, 91.0% of the farms submitted samples for coproscopy; however the frequency of examinations varied very widely. The subjective assessment of the pasture showed a relatively low association to endoparasite infections. Inefficacy of antiparasitic drugs was suspected by the owners in 17.2 % and 12.5% of the herds in Germany and Austria, respectively. Macrocyclic lactones were the most commonly used drugs (80.0% of the herds), but benzimidazoles and monepantel were also widely used. Antiparasitic drugs were regularly rotated by 61.0% of the owners. Independent of the pasture area available per animal, the risk of lethal cases because of endoparasite infection (primarily due to Haetnonchus contortus) was significantly higher in larger herds (>= 50 animals) compared to smaller farms (<= 10 animals). Conclusion: A major conclusion drawn from the questionnaire is that faecal examination is definitely advisable before any anthelmintic treatment to monitor the current parasite infection status in the herd and to avoid unnecessary or ineffective treatments or drug rotations. This also facilitates the application of selective, specific anthelmintic treatment, a concept which is currently applied only by 29.0% of the German farms and 35.7% of the Austrian farms.