Objective: The optimal surgical technique for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in canine has been scientifically discussed for decades. Despite the continuous debate, proximal tibial osteotomies such as tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) are increasingly common. The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature reporting outcome and complications associated with TPLO and TTA. Materials and methods: A systematic search of literature databases identified articles published from August 2004 to February 2016 describing evaluations of short-or long-term outcomes as well as complications following TPLO or TTA. Results: Ninety-one studies were included in this review and assigned to one out of four evidence levels. Of those, 89 studies provided the lowest evidence level and only two were assigned to the third-best evidence level. A comparison of subjective gait analyses could not detect differences in the decrease of lameness between TPLO and TTA, while objective gait analysis supports the superiority of TPLO. Fewer patients treated with TPLO were diagnosed with postoperative joint instability and TPLO had a lower percent increase of osteoarthritis (OA) after surgery. Owner satisfaction was high for both techniques. For TPLO and TTA the average total, minor, major and catastrophic complication rates were 15.9 % and 20.8 %, 7.9 % and 11.6 %, 5.2 % and 13.2 % as well as 0.8 % and 5.6 %, respectively. Conclusion and clinical significance: The assessed literature supports the hypothesis that TPLO is associated with lower complication rates, an improved clinical-functional outcome and less increase of OA compared to TTA. The results are indicative for a long-term restoration of normal limb function after TPLO. However, the strength of available evidence and the comparability of each study's results were poor and more comparative studies are needed to draw strong conclusions towards the superiority of the TPLO over the TTA.