Intracranial abscess formation is an extremely rare and sporadically documented disease in South American Camelids (SACs). Herein we report the first case of otogenic brain abscess formation in this species.A 4 years old female alpaca was presented to our veterinary hospital with a 6 month history of neurologic disorder symptoms, mainly head tilt to the right and emaciation. A comprehensive workup (ultrasound and computed tomography) revealed irreversible cranial nerve abnormalities, extensive lesions in the region of external, middle and internal right ear including destruction of bony structures (tympanic bulla, parts of temporal bone) and severe brain deformation caused by an intracranial abscess. The lesion was up to 6x7x4 cm and occupying almost 40% of the cranial cavity. No pathological findings were evident in other organs or structures. The late referral of the alpaca at this advanced stage of destructive disease precluded surgical intervention.This case report describes the clinical signs, diagnostic procedures and pathological findings in an adult female alpaca suffering from cranial nerve abnormalities caused by a massive otogenic brain abscess. Camelids suffering from otitis may not present with clinical signs until the pathology is severe. The importance of considering intracranial abscess formation as differential diagnosis in SACs showing the merest hint of nerve deficits cannot be emphasized enough in order to diagnose such pathological processes at an early and treatable stage.
Animals Brain Abscessdiagnostic imagingpathologyveterinary Camelids, New World Female Tomography, X-Ray Computed