The transcription factors STAT5A and STAT5B have essential roles in survival and proliferation of hematopoietic cells-which have been considered largely redundant. Mutations of upstream kinases, copy number gains, or activating mutations in STAT5A , or more frequently in STAT5B , cause altered hematopoiesis and cancer. Interfering with their activity by pharmacological intervention is an up-and-coming therapeutic avenue. Precision medicine requests detailed knowledge of STAT5A"s and STAT5B"s individual functions. Recent evidence highlights the privileged role for STAT5B over STAT5A in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Here, we provide an overview on their individual functions within the hematopoietic system.