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Growth hormone (GH) resistance and low serum levels of insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are common features in human liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) controls several vital functions in the liver, including GH-mediated transcription of IGF-1. To investigate the role of STAT5 in liver fibrogenesis, we specifically deleted the Stat5a/b locus both in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in the multidrug resistance gene 2 knockout (Mdr2(-/-)) mouse model of cholestasis. Double knockout mice develop an early and severe liver fibrosis phenotype, accompanied by perturbed expression of key regulators of bile acid homeostasis. Deletion of Stat5 resulted in GH resistance, and IGF-1 levels in serum were undetectable. We could observe reduced expression of important hepatoprotective genes, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr), hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (Hnf6), prolactin receptor (Prlr), and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (Lifr) as well as increased numbers of apoptotic hepatocytes.