Proliferative kidney disease is an emerging disease among salmonids in Europe and North America caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. The decline of endemic brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Alpine streams of Europe is fostered by T. bryosalmonae infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that acts as sentinels of the immune system against the invading pathogens. However, little is known about the TLRs' response in salmonids against the myxozoan infection. In the present study, we identified and evaluated TLR1, TLR19, and TLR13-like genes of brown trout using data-mining and phylogenetic analysis. The expression pattern of TLRs was examined in the posterior kidney of brown trout infected with T. bryosalmonae at various time points. Typical Toll/interleukin-1 receptor protein domain was found in all tested TLRs. However, TLR13-like chr2 had a short amino acid sequence with no LRR domain. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that TLR orthologs are conserved across vertebrates. Similarly, a conserved synteny gene block arrangement was observed in the case of TLR1 and TLR19 across fish species. Interestingly, all tested TLRs showed their maximal relative expression from 6 to 10 weeks post-exposure to the parasite. Our results suggest that these TLRs may play an important role in the innate defense mechanism of brown trout against the invading T. bryosalmonae.