Castillo-Lopez, E; Rivera-Chacon, R; Ricci, S; Petri, RM; Reisinger, N; Zebeli, Q
Short-term screening of multiple phytogenic compounds for their potential to modulate chewing behavior, ruminal fermentation profile, and pH in cattle fed grain-rich diets.
J Dairy Sci. 2021; 104(4):4271-4289
Autor/innen der Vetmeduni Vienna:
Castillo Lopez Ezequias
Rivera Chacon Raul
Institut für Tierernährung und funktionelle Pflanzenstoffe
- In cattle, proper rumen functioning and digestion are intimately linked to chewing behavior. Yet, high grain feeding impairs chewing activity, increasing the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis and dysfermentation. This study aimed to screen 9 different phytogenic compounds for their potential to modulate chewing activity, meal size, rumino-reticular short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and pH during consumption in a first daily meal and shortly thereafter in cattle fed a grain-rich diet. Treatments were control (total mixed ration without phytogenic) or addition of a phytogenic compound at a low or high dose. Phytogenic compounds and doses (all in mg/kg) were angelica root (6.6 and 66), capsaicin (10 and 100), gentian root (6.6 and 66), garlic oil (0.3 and 3), ginger extract (40 and 400), L-menthol (6.7 and 67), mint oil (15.3 and 153), thyme oil (9.4 and 94), and thymol (5 and 50), for the low and high groups, respectively. Before the start of the screening experiment, cows were fed to reach subacute ruminal acidosis conditions, confirmed with the time of ruminal pH <5.8 being 655 ± 148.2 min/d. During the screening experiment, the treatments were offered in a controlled meal (2.5 kg of DM for 4 h) as part of the daily diet with 65% concentrate. Each treatment was tested in 4 of the 9 cannulated Holstein cows using an incomplete Latin square design. Ruminal and reticular fluids were sampled before and after each treatment, and data collected before the meal were used as covariates. Chewing and ruminal pH were monitored during the treatment, followed by 2 h of complete feed restriction, and then 4 h of ad libitum feed intake without phytogenic. Data showed that supplementation of angelica root tended to linearly increase rumination time immediately after the first meal when feed was restricted (27.3, 41.9, and 42.6 ± 5.99 min for control, low and high groups, respectively). Capsaicin increased eating time (43.6, 49.4, and 66.4 ± 4.93 min) during consumption but did not affect ruminal total SCFA or mean ruminal pH. Garlic oil reduced the concentration of reticular total SCFA (75.7, 71.3, and 60.1 mM) and tended to decrease ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.50, 1.78, and 1.87 ± 0.177) with no effect on ruminal pH. The L-menthol affected reticular total SCFA quadratically (76.1, 64.9, and 81.0 ± 4.22%), and ruminal pH responded quadratically when feed was reintroduced ad libitum (6.0, 6.3, and 6.1 ± 0.07). Mint oil did not affect chewing or total SCFA during consumption, but the low dose increased ruminal pH (6.5, 6.7, and 6.5 ± 0.08). Thyme oil tended to lower the severity of ruminal acidosis. Overall, phytogenic compounds demonstrated distinct dose-dependent effects to beneficially influence chewing behavior, modulate fermentation, and mitigate ruminal acidosis in dairy cows under a high-grain challenge diet.Copyright © 2021 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.