We focus on the historical development of the "Black Slavonian Pig", one of the few autochthonous pig breeds that still exist in Croatia. The breeding of the "Pfeiffer pig" is closely associated with the biography of a single stockbreeder. This member of the Pfeiffer family was a trader whose goal was to establish a new breed of pig adapted to the farming systems in the Balkans in the middle of the 19th century. He hoped that Pfeiffer pigs would provide better production in terms of improved feed conversion, fattening duration, meat yield and fertility. The Pfeiffer pig was derived by cross-breeding the swallow-bellied Mangalica, Berkshire and Poland China pigs, with the resulting crossbreds repeatedly crossed with Poland China pigs. The Peiffer pig was well adapted to the dominant farming system of the 19th century, the silvopastoral system, in which the pigs moved freely on pastures, in marshy meadows and in forests. Not only did the latter half of the 20th century see changes in pig husbandry but the market demand for the pigs also declined in this period. Since the end of the 20th century, the production of Pfeiffer pigs has been promoted by national protection acts and funding programmes and there is now a steady increase in the numbers of pigs.