Vascular leakage plays a key role in vision-threatening retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Fluorescence angiography is the current gold standard for identification of leaky vasculature in vivo, however it lacks depth resolution, providing only 2D images that complicate precise identification and localization of pathological vessels. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely adopted for clinical ophthalmology due to its high, micron-scale resolution and rapid volumetric scanning capabilities. Nevertheless, OCT cannot currently identify leaky blood vessels. To address this need, we have developed a new method called exogenous contrast-enhanced leakage OCT (ExCEL-OCT) which identifies the diffusion of tracer particles around leaky vasculature following injection of a contrast agent. We apply this method to a mouse model of retinal neovascularization and demonstrate high-resolution 3D vascular leakage measurements in vivo for the first time.Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.