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Type of publication: Diploma Thesis
Type of document:

Year: 2010

Authors: Gerritsmann, Hanno

Title: Comparision of s-(+) ketamine and ketamine, with medetomidine, for field anesthesia in the European brown hare (lepus europaeus).

Source: Diplomarbeit, Vet. Med. Univ. Wien, pp. 42.

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Gerritsmann Hanno

Stalder Gabrielle
Walzer Christian

Ebersp├Ącher-Schweda Eva

Vetmed Research Units:
Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology

Graduation date: 19.11.10

This is a comparative study of two anesthetic protocols based on medetomidine in combination with either racemic ketamine or S(+)-ketamine in the European brown hare (EBH) (Lepus europaeus). Availability of tested protocols for wildlife that is of interest for research purposes deems necessary. Literature based anesthetic regimens used for the EBH in the past did not seem adequate anymore. Since Lagomorphs are known for higher anesthetic risk it was tried to develop a protocol that would reliably produce safe, surgical anesthesia with a brief recovery period, suitable for field anesthesia. 20 EBHs were anesthetized for routine procedures. All parameters recorded in the study were subject to statistical analysis. Times until first and full effect were recorded and during maintenance the animals' vital parameters were measured in a five minute interval. Special focus was set on recovery parameters. Total anesthesia time, Standing time and Recovery time were noted. Additionally, the number of times the animal fell over or was pedaling in lateral position were recorded. A visual analogue scale was used for subjective assessment of recovery quality. All personnel evaluating anesthesia were blinded about the protocol used. At the dosages of 15 mg kg-1 S(+)-ketamine or 30 mg kg-1 racemic ketamine in combination with 0.2 mg kg-1 medetomidine did not reliably produce surgical anesthesia. Overall, animals receiving the racemic ketamine reached a deeper state of anesthesia and had more respiratory depression than the S(+)-ketamine group. Unfortunately, the idea of using S(+)-ketamine instead of racemic ketamine did not markedly improve recovery. Even though slight improvements were noted in the S(+)-ketamine group, recovery frequently exceeded two hours in both groups. Recovery in most cases was accompanied by uncoordinated movements and involuntary motoractivity. We conclude that further research is needed to develop an injectable field anesthesia protocol for the EBH that guarantees surgical anesthesia while producing minimal unwanted side effects during recovery and therefore diminishes animal welfare issues.

Publication(s) resulting from University thesis:

Gerritsmann, H; Stalder, GL; Seilern-Moy, K; Knauer, F; Walzer, C (2012): Comparison of S(+)-ketamine and ketamine, with medetomidine, for field anaesthesia in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). Vet Anaesth Analg. 2012; 39(5):511-519

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