University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna - Research portal

Diagrammed Link to Homepage University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

Selected Publication:

Open Access Logo

Type of publication: Diploma Thesis
Type of document:

Year: 2011

Authors: Hirtler, Arno

Title: Sonographische Grundlagenstudie des Fesselgelenkes bei Schaf und Ziege.

Other title: Sonoanatomic study of the fetlock in healthy sheep and goats

Source: Diplomarbeit, Vet. Med. Univ. Wien, pp. 68.


Altenbrunner-Martinek Birgit
Kofler Johann

Franz Sonja

Vetmed Research Units:
University Clinic for Ruminants, Clinical Unit of Ruminant Medicine

Graduation date: 09.01.12

Sonography is an important tool for diagnosing diseases of the locomotor system. It helps to evaluate tendons, ligaments, joint capsules and any free fluid. Knowledge of the sonographic anatomy is essential to detect any changes. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy of the fetlock region in sheep and goats based on sonographic pictures. Furthermore, reference values of individual structures’size were collected and compared to each other. During the first phase, sonographic examination was conducted on the fetlock of six sheep cadavers and compared to frozen feet sections. In the case of eight feet, the joint pouches were experimentally filled. During the second phase, the same examination was conducted on ten living sheep and eight goats. The Toshiba Aplio XG ultrasound device with a 9 MHz probe was used in the first phase and the Mindray M7 with a 10 MHz probe in the second one. Clear differentiation of the joint space, the capsule, the articular cartilage, the extensor tendons, the flexor tendons and the interosseus medius muscle was possible by means of the sonographic examination. Eleven structures, the joint capsule, the articular cartilage, the ligg. collateralia lateral & mediale, the superficial digital flexor tendon, the superficial part and the deep part of the manica flexoria, the deep flexor tendon in longitudinal and transverse section and the musculus interosseus medius in longitudinal and transverse section were measured and compared to each other. No significant differences were observed between the right and left and between the front and back extremities. Differences between sheep and goats could neither be neglected nor demonstrated. In the case of goats, a correlation between the age of the animals and the size of the structures could not be proven. It was shown that a minimum experimental filling of 3 ml was necessary for imaging a distended fetlock joint cavity. The clear differentiation of the soft tissue structures by ultrasonography is a valuable tool for the examination of the fetlock joint. However, more studies are necessary for demonstrating any pathological aspects.

© University of Veterinary Medicine ViennaHelp and DownloadsAccessibility statement