The maternal-fetal transfer and subsequent uptake of sow milk enriched with n-6- or n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids may not only influence neonatal body fat but may also have an impact on the immune function of newborn piglets. Sows were fed a diet containing sunflower oil as n-6-source or oil from seal blubber with long chain polyunsaturated n-3-fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation. Sow serum was investigated during pregnancy and serum and milk during lactation; piglet serum and liver were investigated in the suckling period until day 19. Piglet leukocyte subpopulations were characterised by flow cytometry and leukocyte proliferation was tested after stimulation with mitogens. No differences were noted in performance. The serum and milk fatty acid status of the sows was markedly influenced by the diet. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were higher (p < 0.001) in serum and liver of piglets delivered from sows fed the seal blubber oil. Piglets at birth had lower lymphocyte counts (p < 0.01) than piglets 19 days after birth. However, no influence of feeding the different oil sources was noted on lymphocyte phenotyping and leukocyte proliferation test. The results of the present study show that the maternal diet affected the fatty acid status of neonates, but much more in the sucking period. Immunological traits were not affected, probably as the mononuclear cell lineage is too immature around birth. Effects of PUFA n-3 might only be seen at a later time point or in the polymorphonuclear cell lineage as they were dominating right after birth.