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Publication type: Diploma Thesis

Year: 2011

Author(s): Thanner, Sophie

Title: Analyse von Komponenten des ätherischen Öles im Mastfutter von Broilern bei Kümmel und Fenchel als Futterzusatz.

Other title: Analysis of components of the essential oils in caraway and fennel, used as supplements in standard broilers's diet

Source: Diplomarbeit, Vet. Med. Univ. Wien, pp. 81.


Advisor(s):

Chizzola Remigius

Reviewer(s):
Hess Michael

Vetmed Research Units:
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds


Graduation date: 12.04.11


Project(s): Effects of Apiaceae fruits as feed ingredients in broilers


Abstract:
More and more animal food are including herbal food-supplements in place of synthetic drugs such as antibiotics. This may be due to the detrimental effects of synthetic drugs. Consequently, many scientific experiments have been conducted to determine whether the use of aromatic plants and the addition of essential oils to the food do improve the health and the growth of the animals. In order to validly repeat and compare these experiments, knowing the exact amounts of active components in the herbal ingredients in animal-food products is of vital importance. Due to the minute amount of a wide variety of phytochemicals from plant extracts present in a given animal food, sensitive methods for their analysis are needed. In this study, crushed fruits of caraway (Carum carvi) or fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), were added to a standard broiler´s diet at a rate of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 2%. The supplemented feed and as a control, the standard broiler´s diet without added herbs were extracted with steam distillation, microdistillation and dichloromethane (DCM).To compensate for the variability of the extraction method, camphor was used as an internal standard to our samples during extraction, and as an internal standard for gaschromatography hexadecane or decane was used. Steam distillation: 10 grams of each food sample was distilled with a Clevenger-equipment at a rate of 32 drops per minute for 90 minutes. Microdistillation: 0.4 grams of each food sample was added to a heated (HOT) vial and connected through a capillary to a cooled (COOL) vial. The samples were all distillated with a special temperature protocol DCM-extraction: 25 ml dichloromethane were added to 2.5 grams of each food sample. The samples were extracted for 1 hour in an ultrasounic bath at room temperature and then filtered. The volatile components of our extracts were analysed with gaschromatography. In caraway the amount of limonene and carvone were measured, as they are the most important components of the essential oil of caraway. It was found that limonene was best extracted by steam distillation. Very low concentrations of carvone were best extracted by steam distillation, higher concentrations of carvon were best extracted by microdistillation. In fennel the amount of fenchone and anethole were measured, as they are the most importent components of the essential oil of fennel. Fenchone was best extracted by steam distillation, anethole was best extracted by micordistillation. The recovery, which implies the correctness of a method, accounted for steam distillation 113,87%, for microdistillation 103,78% and for DCM-extraction 67,7%. The CV, which implies the precision of a method, accounted for steam distillation 17,2%, for microdistillation 17,4% and for DCM-Extraction 20,2%. In conclusion, all three test methods were found suitable for determinating essential oils present in aromatic feed additives. The DCM-extraction is a fast and easy method, but at low concentrations of active components it shows a much lower recovery than the steam distillation and the microdistillation.


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