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Publication type: Journal Article
Document type: Full Paper

Year: 2008

Author(s): Grabensteiner, E; Liebhart, D; Arshad, N; Hess, M

Title: Antiprotozoal activities determined in vitro and in vivo of certain plant extracts against Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Blastocystis sp.

Source: Parasitol Res. 2008; 103(6):1257-1264

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Grabensteiner Elvira
Hess Michael
Liebhart Dieter

Vetmed Research Units
University Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine

A total of 43 plant substances provided as raw material and different kinds of extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and heptane) from 18 different organic wastes obtained from the food/feed industry were investigated for their in vitro activities against clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, and Blastocystis sp. Ethanolic extracts of thyme, saw palmetto, grape seed, and pumpkin fruit proved to be most efficacious. Thus, these extracts were further tested in vivo in turkeys experimentally infected with H. meleagridis by administrating the substances to the birds through the drinking water. Even though a delayed mortality was noticed in some birds medicated with the extracts of thyme, grape seed, and pumpkin fruit, all birds died or had to be euthanized the latest within 5 weeks post infection--with the exception of one bird which was probably never infected with histomonads--due to a severe typhlohepatitis indicative for histomonosis. In addition, none of the substances were able to prevent the spreading of H. meleagridis from infected to in-contact birds. Thus, these studies clearly demonstrate that in vitro studies are of limited value to assess the efficacy of plant substances against histomonosis.

Keywords Pubmed: Animals
Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology*
Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use*
Blastocystis/drug effects
Blastocystis Infections/drug therapy
Blastocystis Infections/parasitology
Eukaryota/drug effects*
Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use*
Poultry Diseases/drug therapy*
Poultry Diseases/parasitology
Protozoan Infections/drug therapy*
Protozoan Infections/parasitology
Trichomonadida/drug effects

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