This study investigated the potential of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae to protect basil (Ocimum basilicum) against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici (Fob). It was hypothesised that G. mosseae could confer a bioprotective effect against Fob as a result of increases in leaf rosmarinic (RA) and caffeic acids (CA) or essential oil concentrations. Glomus mosseae conferred a bioprotective effect against Fob by reducing plant mortality to 20% compared to 33% in non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. This bioprotective effect was not related to improved phosphorus (P) nutrition, as AM and NM plants treated with Fob had similar shoot P concentrations (6 and 8 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively). Both AM and NM plants treated with Fob had similar leaf and root RA and CA concentrations. Furthermore, phenolic (40-70 mg CA g(-1) DW) or essential oil concentrations (0.1-0.6 mg g(-1) DW) were not increased in plants treated with the AM fungus and Fob. Therefore, the bioprotective effect conferred by G. mosseae was not a result of increases in the phytochemicals tested in this study. However, under the AM symbiosis, basil plants treated with Fob had lower methyleugenol concentrations in their leaves (0.1 mg g(-1) DW) than NM plants treated with the pathogen (0.6 mg g(-1) DW).