The trophozoites of Trichomonas gallinae and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum were studied by means of light and electron microscopy after cloning and cultivating them axenically. T. gallinae trophozoites varied in shape reaching from ovoidal to pyriform and had a size of about 7-11 microm. They were provided with four free flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which did not become free at the posterior pole. The nucleus was ovoid, had a size of about 2.5-3 microm, and was situated closely below the basal bodies of the flagella. The axostyle consisted of a row of microtubules running from the region of the apical basal bodies to the posterior end of the cell. In addition to flagellated stages, which contained food vacuoles, hydrogenosomes, a costa-like structure, and glycogen granules besides lacunes of endoplasmic reticulum, spherical, nonflagellated, and cyst-like stages occurred. The trophozoites of T. gallinarum appeared mostly pear-shaped and ranged in size from 6 to 15 microm. They had also four free anterior flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which became free at the posterior pole in contrast to that of T. gallinae. Another clearly visible difference to T. gallinae was the occurrence of a sphere of lacunes of the endoplasmic reticulum surrounding in a regular distance the nucleus with its typical perinuclear membranes. Furthermore, the food vacuoles appeared very large. However, both species clearly differed from the trophozoites of Histomonas meleagridis.