The D816V-mutated variant of Kit triggers multiple signaling pathways and is considered essential for malignant transformation in mast cell (MC) neoplasms. We here describe that constitutive activation of the Stat5-PI3K-Akt-cascade controls neoplastic MC development. Retrovirally transduced active Stat5 (cS5(F)) was found to trigger PI3K and Akt activation, and to transform murine bone marrow progenitors into tissue-infiltrating MCs. Primary neoplastic Kit D816V(+) MCs in patients with mastocytosis also displayed activated Stat5, which was found to localize to the cytoplasm and to form a signaling complex with PI3K, with consecutive Akt activation. Finally, the knock-down of either Stat5 or Akt activity resulted in growth inhibition of neoplastic Kit D816V(+) MCs. These data suggest that a downstream Stat5-PI3K-Akt signaling cascade is essential for Kit D816V-mediated growth and survival of neoplastic MCs.