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Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Review Article

Year: 2020

Authors: Bianchini, R; Karagiannis, SN; Jordakieva, G; Jensen-Jarolim, E

Title: The role of IgG4 in the fine tuning of tolerance in ige-mediated allergy and cancer.

Source: Int J Mol Sci. 2020; 21(14):E5017

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Bianchini Rodolfo
Jensen-Jarolim Erika

Vetmed Research Units
Messerli Research Institute, Comparative Medicine

Project(s): Development of mimotope vaccines for preclinical and comparative medicine studies

Among the four immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, IgG4 is the least represented in serum of a healthy human and it is considered an "odd" antibody. The IgG4 antibody has unique structural features that affect its biological function. These include the ability to undergo antigen-binding fragment (Fab)-arm exchange, to create fragment crystallizable (Fc) - Fc binding with other IgG4 and other IgG subclass antibodies, have a unique affinity profile for Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) and no binding to complement component C1q. Altogether, these characteristics support anti-inflammatory roles of IgG4 leading to immune tolerance. Under conditions of chronic antigenic stimulation and Th2-type inflammation, both tissue and serum IgG4 levels are increased. This review seeks to highlight how in allergen immunotherapy IgG4 can confer a protective role as a "blocking" antibody and safeguard from subsequent allergen exposure, while IgG4 can confer immunomodulatory functions to support malignancy. While Th2 conditions drive polarization of macrophages to the M2a subtype, chronic antigen stimulation drives B cell class switching to IgG4 to further support phenotypical macrophage changes towards an M2b-like state. M2b-like macrophages can secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) to support regulatory cell recruitment and to further shape a tolerogenic microenvironment. Thereby, IgG4 have a Janus-faced role, favorable in allergy but detrimental in cancer.

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