The present study aimed to find out how far a sound horse actively (on its own will) flexes its head and neck to the side and down respectively stretches it up and to which extend these movements can be repeated passively (with force). Standarized method of examination should be developed. 14 adult warmblooded horses were examined by motion analysis,supplied with reflecting Spheric markers, and traced by high-speed-video-cameras. Measurements were carried out on a treadmill.
Active movement was provoked with a titbit, passive movement was forced by the examiner. Only movement to the side could be repeated passively.
While moving to the side and downwards, the highest approach of the marker on the nose towards the marker os sacrum 1 was calculated, while moving up, the highest position of the marker on the nose (socalled extremes). Additional solid angles between the markers were calculated at the maximum of movement. Extremes of active and passive movement were compared and related to a substitute for the length and to the circumference of the neck. Significant differences between active and passive movement were found, which means that spontaneous movement can not be repeated forcefully in its full range. Relation between length or circumference of neck and maximum of movement could not be found. Active movement is the method of choice for clinical examination.
neck / horse / movement / kinematic / active / passive