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Selected Publication:

Type of publication: Doctoral Thesis
Type of document:

Year: 2017

Authors: Dal-Bianco, Barbara

Title: Kinematik der Vorderextremität und Untersuchung zur Beeinflussung der Oberflächen-Elektromyographie durch EKG und Atmung an der Vorderextremität beim gesunden Hund im Schritt.

Other title: Kinematics of the forelimb and investigation of the influence of ECG and breathing on surface-electromyography of the forelimb in healthy dogs during walking

Source: Dissertation, Vet. Med. Univ. Wien, pp. 106.


Peham Christian

Leschnik Michael

Vetmed Research Units:
University Equine Clinic, Clinical Unit of Equine Surgery

The aim of this study was to describe the motion pattern of the brachial region of the healthy dog during walking using kinematic analysis and surface-electromyography. Seventeen sound private owned dogs were included in this study after a clinical, orthopedic (ground reaction forces included) and neurological examination. Light reflective markers were fixed on the skin above selected touchable bone points of the left forelimb. The surface electrodes were placed on the shaved and cleaned skin above the M. biceps brachii, M. brachialis, M. triceps brachii, and the left side of the thorax (applied over the apical impulse of the heart). Synchronous measurements of kinematics, electromyography and electrocardiogram (altered Einthoven lead) in at least three motion cycles per dog have been recorded at individual walking speed. Data of the muscle activity had to run through an adaptive filter which eliminated the crosstalk of the heart. Therefore QRS-complexes of the ECG were detected and removed from the EMG-data. Joint kinematics was compared to the activity patterns of the biceps brachii, the triceps brachii and the brachialis muscle with joint motion. Biceps brachii and brachialis muscle are evaluated together as one muscle group, the flexors of the elbow, supporter of shoulder flexion and flexor of the carpal joint. They show a high activity pattern during the transition from stance to swing phase. During the following late swing, the muscles slowly decrease activity (3,5 mV ± 2,0) and stay nearly constant due to the middle of stance. Increased activity starts in the late stance to reach a maximum in the early swing (99,6 mV ± 3,9). The stance phase starts with a maximum activation of the triceps brachii muscle, the extensor of the elbow (94,4 mV ± 8,6), corresponding with the maximum extension of the elbow and the carpal joint. To the late stance phase triceps muscle decreases (3,3 mV ± 1,7) and rests on a level until a second lower peak in the early swing phase (66,0 mV ± 14,6). Muscle activity increases before flexion and extension of the joints and can be seen as a preparation of lifting and bearing the paw and as stabilisation of the fore limb. The results confirm our hypotheses that there is a correlation of joint motion and muscle activity during defined gait cycles.

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