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Publication type: Journal Article
Document type: Full Paper

Year: 2018

Author(s): Rubel, F; Brugger, K; Walter, M; Vogelgesang, JR; Didyk, YM; Fu, S; Kahl, O

Title: Geographical distribution, climate adaptation and vector competence of the Eurasian hard tick Haemaphysalis concinna.

Source: Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018; 9(5):1080-1089



Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Brugger Katharina
Rubel Franz
Vogelgesang Janna
Walter Melanie

Vetmed Research Units
Institute of Food Safety, Food Technology and Veterinary Public Health, Unit of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology


Abstract:
The ixodid tick Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844 is a proven vector of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularaemia. In the present study, up-to-date maps depicting the geographical distribution and climate adaptation of H. concinna are presented. A dataset was compiled, resulting in 656 georeferenced locations in Eurasia. The distribution of H. concinna ranges from the Spanish Atlantic coast to Kamchatka, Russia, within the belt of 28-64° N latitude. H. concinna is the second most abundant tick species after Ixodes ricinus collected from birds, and third most abundant tick species flagged from vegetation in Central Europe. To investigate the climate adaptation of H. concinna, the georeferenced locations were superimposed on a high-resolution map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. A frequency distribution of the H. concinna occurrence under different climates shows three peaks related to the following climates: warm temperate with precipitation all year round, boreal with precipitation all year round and boreal, winter dry. Almost 87.3 % of all H. concinna locations collected are related to these climates. Thus, H. concinna prefers climates with a warm and moist summer. The remaining tick locations were characterized as cold steppes (6.2%), cold deserts (0.8%), Mediterranean climates (2.7%) or warm temperate climates with dry winter (2.9%). In those latter climates H. concinna occurs only sporadically, provided the microclimate is favourable. Beyond proven vector competence pathogen findings in questing H. concinna are compiled from the literature.


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