There has been a worldwide increase in the number of wild boar populations during the latter half of the 20th century. This leads to a greater contact rate within the population. Diseases that benefit from wildlife overabundance affect not only the fitness of game species, but also livestock health and public health. Many viral diseases present in domestic pig populations are also present in wild boars where they can provide as disease reservoir.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the wild boar in Lower Austria in case of PRRSV, PCV2 and SIV. These pathogens cause important swine diseases worldwide and SIV additionally is a zoonotic agent. For this purpose blood samples from 61 wild boars were tested for the presence of antibodies against the viruses mentioned above. The samples were collected from nine hunting ranges in Lower Austria during the hunting season 09/10.
All sera were screened by commercialized ELISA tests for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2.
The serological testing against SIV was carried out by haemagglutination inhibition test (HI-Test).
There was no indication of antibodies against PRRSV. 18 (29,51 %) wild boars were found positive for antibodies of the IgG class against PCV2 antibodies. These were 8 (25,81%) juveniles younger than 12 months, 5 (31,25%) sub-adults and 5 (38,46%) adults older than two years.
8 (13,79%) out of 58 examined sera were seropositiv for SIV. The subtype found most frequently was SIV H3N2 (n=7, 87,50%). One of the 58 wild boars was found seropositiv for SIV H1N2 (1,72%). No wild boar was diagnosed seropositiv for SIV H1N2. The serological results of three animals are missing.
The findings of this study show that both PCV2 and SIV are circulating in the wild boar population of lower Austria. However, further research is needed to describe better the epidemiology of infectious diseases of wild boars in lower Austria.