Physiologic effects of dietary oat β-glucan and low and high dietary calcium-phosphorus (CaP) on intestinal morphology and gene expression related to SCFA absorption, mucus production, inflammation, and peptide digestion have not been established in weaned mammals. We therefore randomized 32 weaned pigs into 4 equal groups that received a cornstarch-casein-based diet with low (65% of the Ca and P requirement) and high (125 and 115% of the Ca and P requirement, respectively) CaP levels and low- and high-CaP diets supplemented with 8.95% oat β-glucan concentrate for 14 d. High-CaP diets downregulated duodenal expression of IL-1β (P < 0.05) by 30% compared with low-CaP diets. Furthermore, high-CaP diets reduced (P < 0.05) cecal crypt depth by 14% compared with low-CaP diets. Dietary β-glucan upregulated the expression of cecal MCT1 (P < 0.05) by 40% and that of colonic IL-6 (P < 0.05) by 142% compared with the control diet. Correlation analysis indicated that cecal MCT1 (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) and colonic IL-6 (r = 0.84, P < 0.05) expression was positively related to luminal butyrate and total SCFA, respectively, indicating that β-glucan may partly modify gene expression via increased SCFA generation. In conclusion, β-glucan and CaP levels modulated the expression of selected genes and morphology in the postweaning period, but effects were specific to intestinal segment. The present results further indicate that, in addition to being essential nutrients for bone accretion, dietary CaP level may modify the intestinal tissue response in young pigs.