Food proteins may get nitrated by various exogenous or endogenous mechanisms. As individuals might get recurrently exposed to nitrated proteins via daily diet, we aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly ingested nitrated food proteins on the subsequent immune response in non-allergic and allergic mice using the milk allergen beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) as model food protein in a mouse model. Evaluating the presence of nitrated proteins in food, we could detect 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in extracts of different foods and in stomach content extracts of non-allergic mice under physiological conditions. Chemically nitrated BLG (BLGn) exhibited enhanced susceptibility to degradation in simulated gastric fluid experiments compared to untreated BLG (BLGu). Gavage of BLGn to non-allergic animals increased interferon-γ and interleukin-10 release of stimulated spleen cells and led to the formation of BLG-specific serum IgA. Allergic mice receiving three oral gavages of BLGn had higher levels of mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) compared to allergic mice receiving BLGu. Regardless of the preceding immune status, non-allergic or allergic, repeatedly ingested nitrated food proteins seem to considerably influence the subsequent immune response.