Andrological diseases of the male dog - Modern diagnostics and medication Part I: Diseases of the testicles [Andrologische Erkrankungen des Rüden - Moderne Diagnostik und Medikation Teil 1: Erkrankungen des Hodens].
Congenital disturbances like hypoplasia and aplasia of testicles are seldom; however, early diagnosis is required, especially in breeding dogs. Modern diagnostic and therapeutic options are available for cases of suspected cryptorchidism. Inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the testicles may occur in young and aged male dogs. Testicular tumours occur mainly in aged dogs, though the diagnosis is often complicated due to other diseases. In cases of a suspected infection, zooanthroponoses like Brucella canis or an Ehrlichia sp./Rickettsia sp. infection should be ruled out. The diagnosis of testicular diseases can be improved by the use of various ultrasonographic techniques and/or by fine needle aspiration or biopsy. The latter may be helpful, for example, when semen cannot be collected and a bacteriological examination has to be done. A puncture of the scrotum should always be done in case of a suspected mesothelioma. Due to the bad prognosis associated with this tumour, a counselling interview with the owner is advisable before surgery. In stud dogs, a quick diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid chronic inflammation and infertility. In patients with a bacterial infection, the best antibiotic according to the resistance test and tissue penetrability should be chosen. Scrotal hernia and testicular torsion occur relatively seldom; an early diagnosis may prevent acute and irreversible complications like incarceration and necrosis.