A detailled literature overview describes kidney anatomy and possible diseases.
Altogether the kidneys of 50 tortoises of different species, sex and age were examined radiographically, sonographically and with computed tomography. The results of all three diagnostic imaging procedures were compared and with special attention to the actual agreement of all diagnostic procedures to one and another.
In conclusion each of the three methods is most meaningful for a special range of diseases. While radiography gives a good overview of mineral disturbances of the skeleton, kidney enlargements could not always be diagnosed certainly. Sonography war excellent in detecting parenchymal changes (gouttophi, central kidney edema). On the other hand ultrasonography is unable to visualize skeletal diseases in chelonians.
Sagittal CT is ideal to examine the position, size and shape of organs, although it was impossible to diagnose kidney gout. For further more detailed investigations the author recommend to use a combination of at least two of the procedures. Comparative radiographic and sonographic examinations are available for most practitioners and give a good overview of skeleton and kidney disorders. In comparative radiography and CT examinations the radiograph gives the overview while CT allows differentiation of soft tissue organes. Combined sonography-CT these diagnostic imaging methods are the most meaningful combination that covers the largest diagnostic field, skeletal disease as well as soft tissue disorders.